Introduction[ edit ] Modern humans are part of the taxonomic family Hominidae, known as the great apes. This family consists of four extant genera; namely humans, chimpanzees, gorillas and orangutans.
The phylogenetic relationships between these species has been analysed in detail, with current thinking suggesting that the Humans and chimps essay is our closest living relative. In this essay, the key evidence identifying chimpanzees as the closest living relatives to humans will be described and explained, using appropriate references.
The behavior of humans, chimpanzees and other primates has been a topic of great interest for many years. It rises from the fact that these groups have been found to share some similarities in many aspects ranging from morphological to behavioral. Humans and Chimpanzees are similar. With the10 comparisons between chimps and humans. These are the ten comparisons number of species, DNA, brain size, sociability, language and facial expressions, diet, sex, walking upright, eye and the tools used. Humans and Chimpanzees are similar. With the10 comparisons between chimps and humans. These are the ten comparisons number of species, DNA, brain size, sociability, language and facial expressions, diet, sex, walking upright, eye and the tools used.
This will include a brief history detailing the discovery of human evolutionary relationships, as well as considering the conflicting evidence and drawing an appropriate conclusion. History[ edit ] One of the first scientists to review the various differences between the great apes was Thomas Henry Huxley, a nineteenth century biologist.
The development of biochemistry and immunology in the early twentieth century moved investigation from anatomy to the morphology of molecules.
A report by Emile Zuckerkandl, published as part of a collection indescribed the process of isolating haemoglobin from the red blood cells of various species, splitting the protein into peptide fragments, and then comparing using electrophoresis.
The patterns produced by humans, chimpanzees and gorillas were indistinguishable Washburn, Another report by Morris Goodman published in the same collection also compared the protein albumin from blood serum using similar techniques.
The results for humans and chimpanzees were almost identical Washburn, The discovery of DNA Humans and chimps essay potentially removed the need to rely on both anatomy and the morphology of proteins, instead comparing specific DNA sequences.
This finding is echoed in numerous investigations Chimpanzee Sequencing and Analysis Consortium, The current phylogenetic tree for the family Hominidae splits humans, chimpanzees and gorillas from orangutans, followed by a split from gorillas, then a final split between chimpanzees and humans.
Evidence[ edit ] A key piece of genetic evidence linking the evolution of modern humans and chimpanzees is the human chromosome 2, a product of fusion. A chromosome fusion event occurs when two chromosomes combine and decrease the chromosome number in descendent species.
Often, the karyotype patterns created can be used to generate an accurate phylogenetic history. All great apes have 24 chromosome pairs, apart from humans, who have 23 pairs.
In the case of chromosome 2, there are a number of features that suggest a strong evolutionary link with chimpanzees Ijdo, et al.
Chromosome 2 has an almost identical karyotype banding pattern to that of two chimpanzee chromosomes stacked on top of each other.
Also, the telomere regions found on the ends of chromosomes to protect against deterioration are found in the middle of chromosome 2, further suggesting a fusion event. Finally, a non-functional second centromere has been found on the chromosome, genetically identical to that found on a chimpanzee chromosome.
Pseudogenes, genes that no longer function, also help to provide evidence of common ancestry through the identification of shared errors.
Whilst convergent evolution can cause two similar genes to be produced in different lineages, errors shared between two genes indicates a common ancestor, as errors are independent of desired traits and are very unlikely to be replicated exactly in two separate lineages throughout evolution.
Since all pseudogenes are descended from a parent functional gene, it is possible to compare two pseudogene sequences and determine if the same errors are present in both.
While this gene is present in most animals, in some it has been inactivated due to mutation, including the great apes, guinea pigs and some fruit bats. In each group, the specific mutation that inactivates the gene is different, so the mutation in guinea pigs is in a different location to that of the great apes.
Many other pseudogenes have been found that are only shared by humans and chimpanzees Hughes, et al. Intriguingly, a truncated pseudogene has been discovered that is only shared by gorillas and humans, although the report suggests that chimpanzees may have lost that gene altogether Ueda, et al.
Finally endogenous retroviral insertions, or ERVs, can also provide strong evidence of common ancestry, especially when distinguishing the phylogenetic relationship between humans and the other great apes. When retroviruses use reverse transcriptase to code RNA into DNA, errors often occur, some of which can inactivate the retrovirus.
However, the randomly inserted DNA remains in the host organism genome, and if these insertions are made in a germ line cell, they will be passed on to any offspring generated by that cell. Due to their random nature, if any two species share the same ERV in the same location with the same inactivating mutations, they almost certainly share a common ancestor in which the ERV initially occurred.The chimp has much larger canine teeth and a protruding jaw line.
A similarities though can be seen on how uniform the layout of teeth are between the humans and chimps. The behavior of humans, chimpanzees and other primates has been a topic of great interest for many years.
Observation: Chimpanzee vs White Cheeked Gibbon An observation was conducted at Lincoln Park Zoo of two species of Apes. The observation was of Chimpanzee and White Cheeked Gibbon. Captive Chimps in Relation to Humans Marshonda Theus Park University Abstract In my paper I will be discussing the comparisons in captive chimps and. They also tried to compare the differences and similarities between human language and animal call systems. They examined various animals for example birds, chimpanzees, dolphins and others and how children learn language.
It rises from the fact that these groups have been found to share some similarities in many aspects ranging from morphological to behavioral.
Observation on Chimpanzees and Human Behavior Essay. On October 28th, I made a visit to the Los Angeles Zoo to observe the behavioral differences between female and male chimpanzees - Observation on Chimpanzees and Human Behavior Essay introduction. My observation includes, but is not limited to: behavioral differences within a gender group, female and male interaction, male .
The Essay on Jane Goodall Window Chimpanzees Book of Jane Goodall's Through a Window is to show the relationship between humans and chimpanzees.
Humans and Chimps Essay Sample.
Some scientific studies suggest that humans and chimps share as much as % of their DNA. Scientists have determined that humans and chimps are more similar to each other genetically than organisms in the same species.
Humans and Chimps Essay Sample. Some scientific studies suggest that humans and chimps share as much as % of their DNA.
Scientists have determined that humans and chimps are more similar to each other genetically than .