In geography, the topic was long an integral part of the work of those who study transportation and communications systems. In the s and s, Marxists, led by David Harvey, recast the process not simply as a set of technological advancements but as part of the general process of capitalist commodity production and capital accumulation, particularly the reduction in the turnover time of capital. More recently, cultural theorists, historians, and others interested in the perception of space have invoked the notion to understand the sense of disorientation that often accompanies periods of major technological change.
Giddens used concepts from objectivist and subjectivist social theories, discarding objectivism's focus on detached structures, which lacked regard for humanist elements and subjectivism's exclusive attention to individual or group agency without consideration for socio-structural context.
Thus, for example, he enlisted the aid of geographers, historians and philosophers in bringing notions of time and space into the central heartlands of social theory. Believing that "literary style matters", he held that social scientists are communicators who share frames of meaning across cultural contexts through their work by utilising "the same sources of description mutual knowledge as novelists or others who write fictional accounts of social life.
Unlike structuralism it sees the reproduction of social systems not "as a mechanical outcome, [but] rather Unlike the philosophy of action and other forms of interpretative sociologystructuration focuses on structure rather than production exclusively. Unlike post-structuralist theory, which put similar focus on the effects of time and space, structuration does not recognise only movement, change and transition.
Unlike functionalismin which structures and their virtual synonyms, "systems", comprise organisations, structuration sees structures and systems as separate concepts. Unlike Marxismstructuration avoids an overly restrictive concept of "society" and Marxism's reliance on a universal "motor of history" i.
Finally, "structuration theory cannot be expected to furnish the moral guarantees that critical theorists sometimes purport to offer.
These properties make it possible for similar social practices to exist across time and space and that lend them "systemic" form. Memory traces are thus the vehicle through which social actions are carried out.
Structure is also, however, the result of these social practices.
Thus, Giddens conceives of the duality of structure as being: Structure enters simultaneously into the constitution of the agent and social practices, and 'exists' in the generating moments of this constitution.
Structures exist both internally within agents as memory traces that are the product of phenomenological and hermeneutic inheritance : Giddens holds this duality, alongside "structure" and "system," in addition to the concept of recursiveness, as the core of structuration theory.
This is different, for example, from actor—network theory which appears to grant a certain autonomy to technical artifacts. Social systems have patterns of social relation that change over time; the changing nature of space and time determines the interaction of social relations and therefore structure.
Hitherto, social structures or models were either taken to be beyond the realm of human control—the positivistic approach—or posit that action creates them—the interpretivist approach. The duality of structure emphasizes that they are different sides to the same central question of how social order is created.
Gregor McLennan suggested renaming this process "the duality of structure and agency", since both aspects are involved in using and producing social actions. In examining social systems, structuration theory examines structure, modalityand interaction.
The "modality" discussed below of a structural system is the means by which structures are translated into actions. Interaction[ edit ] Interaction is the agent's activity within the social system, space and time.Time-space compression refers to the set of processes that cause the relative distances between places (i.e., as measured in terms of travel time or cost) to contract, effectively making such places grow “closer.” The idea of a “shrinking world” is not new and, in the face of rapid advances.
‘Constructivism is too focused on ‘norms’ and does not provide an adequate account of material forces in international politics.’ Do you agree? Anthony Giddens has been in the forefront of developments in social theory for the past decade. In The Constitution of Society he outlines the distinctive position he has evolved during that period and offers a full statement of a major new perspective in social thought, a synthesis and elaboration of ideas touched on in previous works but described here for the first time in an integrated and.
Giddens concepts in Structuration Theory have formed the backbone of my PhD research into Enterprise Systems, with this book being the doorway. Giddens’ Structuration Theory – A Summary Posted on March 2, by Karl Thompson Social Structure is also only ever the outcomes of practices which have previously happened, and it makes practices possible (the duality .
Structuration theory: Structuration theory, concept in sociology that offers perspectives on human behaviour based on a synthesis of structure and agency effects known as the “duality of structure.” Instead of describing the capacity of human action as being constrained by powerful stable societal structures (such as.